Yes, it is much important to learn and know about the storage system as compared to knowing their agricultural practices. Research shows that about 20-30% of total production is lost in Postharvest Handling, and Storage comprises its significant contribution. Different types of storage system and practices has been followed from the past and with the advancement of technology, it will be going. In this race, we should know why it is done? How are we doing? And what can be a future possibility?
A simple understanding of storage is preservation whether it is viable or not. Seeds are preserved for future sowing whereas grains are preserved for future use. From a genetic point of view to agronomical aspect storage is an absolute topic to know about. Proper storage is needed for Genetic research and preservation for future use, also storage confirms the use of seeds and grains for the future when needed.
There are pasts where we follow locally available resources and preserve whatever we have.
With the advancement in technology we grew and become stronger in the storage field.
The people of rural areas use traditional methods as there were no proper modern facilities.
Storage places in the case of Nepal that are followed traditionally are:
This is the structure found in the village in their storage room. These structures are bounded by a bamboo mat with mud plastering . They are used to store rice typically. Paddy is threshed, harvested, and stored in these structures from where rice is being used throughout the year.
On the rooftop Floor “ Buikal”:
This kind of technique is used for the storage of maize, potato, and other grains. Here the seeds are harvested and stored on the rooftop. Prior to settling the grains, they are processed and while storing they are treated with different homemade and traditional ways like use of ash, storage bins with clay and cow dung use of neem leaves, use of red dried red chillis, use of tulsi seeds, sand mixture method, use of lime powder, etc. for controlling insect and pests. Among the aforementioned methods, sun-drying, use of ash, use of neem, and plastering of storage bins with clay and cow dung are most common as materials are easily available.
Separate House For Storage:
a mostly used technique where separate house small type is made and the whole harvest is stored along with before mentioned ways for repelling insect and pests.
● Products are easily available.
● It does not need basic knowledge and skill.
● Easy access to pests and rodents
● Short storage life
● Poor seed quality
This includes the most advanced and well-equipped ways of storage. It includes storage on Cold storage, Zero energy storage, and sophisticated methods. Metal bins and hermetic ‘super grain bags ‘ (SGB) are also used. At seed banks seeds stored to preserve genetic diversity. Seeds are dried to optimum moisture content, evaluated for quality and genetic purity, and sealed in moisture-proof containers. For short storage, seeds are dried and placed in sealed containers at 5 degrees celsius. They are stored at a temperature below freezing for long term preservation.
● Good seed quality.
● Large quantities of seed can be stored at a time.
● Long storage life.
● Less access to diseases insects and pests.
● High cost.
● It needs basic knowledge and skill.
● Products are not easily available.
Hence storage of seed is very important in the aspect of agriculture as it is necessary to protect the seed from insects pests and pathogens. Traditional storage of seeds is mainly practiced by the rural areas of hill regions whereas modern storage of seed is practiced by the people of terai regions and urban areas. To preserve the quality seed for a longer period of time and for the production of hybrid and quality sees modern storage is more applicable than traditional storage.